從摩洛的多個名字看聖經的翻譯問題

在研究外邦神時,發現要人獻兒女的摩洛,在中英文的翻譯中合共有 12 個不同名字。

Molech, Moloch, Milcom, Malcam, Malcham, king.
摩洛,米勒公,瑪勒公,瑪勒堪,瑪勒刻阿姆,王。

更混亂的是,在同一版本中出現多個名字,且毫沒有準則。除英文的 NIV 統一譯為 Molech,部份譯為 king 外,其它則是 “ 百花齊放 ”,是翻譯上的大忌。

比較的譯本分別為:
1.和合本
2.和合本修訂版 (和修版)
3.呂振中
4.聖經新譯本 (新譯本)
5.NIV (New International Version)
6.KJV (King James Version)
7.NASB (New American Standard Bible)
8.ESV (English Standard Version)

看過經文後,相信大家都會慨嘆那混亂情況吧。

1. 甚麼名字都有,不知那個版本為準,顯出翻譯上的大問題。

耶利米書 49:1
(和合本) 論亞捫人。耶和華如此說、以色列沒有兒子麼、沒有後嗣麼. 瑪勒堪 為何得迦得之地為業呢.屬他的民為何住其中的城邑呢。
(和修版) 論亞捫人。耶和華如此說:以色列沒有兒子嗎?沒有後嗣嗎?米勒公為何承受迦得為業呢?屬它的百姓為何住其中的城鎮呢?
(呂振中) 論亞捫人。永恆主這么樣說︰「以色列沒有兒子么?或是沒有后嗣么?為什么 米勒公(傳統︰『瑪勒刻阿姆』﹝他們的 ﹞或譯﹝亞捫人的神的名﹞)竟占取了迦得之地以為業,而他的人民又住在迦得的城市呢?
(新譯本) 論到亞捫,耶和華這樣說:“以色列沒有子孫嗎?沒有後嗣嗎?為甚麼 米勒公 竟承受了迦得為業呢?
Jeremiah 49:1
(NIV) Concerning the Ammonites: This is what the LORD says: “Has Israel no sons? Has she no heirs? Why then has Molech taken possession of Gad? Why do his people live in its towns?
(KJV) Concerning the Ammonites, thus saith the LORD; Hath Israel no sons? hath he no heir? why then doth their king inherit Gad, and his people dwell in his cities?
(NASB) Concerning the sons of Ammon. Thus says the LORD: “Does Israel have no sons? Or has he no heirs? Why then has Malcam taken possession of Gad And his people settled in its cities?
(ESV) “Has Israel no sons? Has he no heir? Why then has Milcom dispossessed Gad, and his people settled in its cities?

耶利米書 49:3
(和合本) 希實本哪、你要哀號、因為愛地變為荒場.拉巴的居民哪、〔居民原文作女子〕要呼喊、以麻布束腰.要哭號、在籬笆中跑來跑去.因 瑪勒堪 和屬他的祭司、首領、要一同被擄去。
(和修版) 希實本哪,要哀號,因為愛地已成荒地。拉巴的鄉鎮哪,要呼喊,以麻布束腰;要哭號,在籬笆中往來奔跑;因 米勒公 和它的祭司、官長要一同被擄去。
(呂振中) 「宮堡(傳統︰希實本)阿,哀號哦,因為城(傳統︰愛地)已被蹂躪了﹔拉巴的人民(原文︰女子)哪,呼喊哦,要以麻布束腰而號哭!要刻身哀傷在籬笆中而跑來跑去︰因為 米勒公 (傳統︰『瑪勒刻阿姆』﹝他們的 ﹞或譯﹝亞捫人的神的名﹞)必流亡去,屬他的祭司和首領都必一概流亡。
(新譯本) “希實本哪,你要哀號!因為艾城已被毀滅。拉巴的居民(“居民”原文作“女子”),你們要呼喊,要腰束麻布,要哀哭,要在城牆內跑來跑去。因為 米勒公,以及事奉它的祭司和領袖,都必一同被擄去。
Jeremiah 49:3
(NIV) “Wail, O Heshbon, for Ai is destroyed! Cry out, O inhabitants of Rabbah! Put on sackcloth and mourn; rush here and there inside the walls, for Molech will go into exile, together with his priests and officials.
(KJV) Howl, O Heshbon, for Ai is spoiled: cry, ye daughters of Rabbah, gird you with sackcloth; lament, and run to and fro by the hedges; for their
king shall go into captivity, and his priests and his princes together.
(NASB) “Wail, O Heshbon, for Ai has been destroyed! Cry out, O daughters of Rabbah, Gird yourselves with sackcloth and lament, And rush back and forth inside the walls; For Malcam will go into exile Together with his priests and his princes.
(ESV) “Wail, O Heshbon, for Ai is laid waste! Cry out, O daughters of Rabbah! Put on sackcloth, lament, and run to and fro among the hedges! For
Milcom shall go into exile, with his priests and his officials.

西番雅書 1:5
(和合本) 與那些在房頂上敬拜天上萬象的、並那些敬拜耶和華指著他起誓、又指著 瑪勒堪 起誓的、
(和修版) 還有那些在屋頂拜天上萬象的,那些敬拜耶和華指著他起誓,卻又指著 米勒公 起誓的;
(呂振中) 剪除那些在房頂上敬拜天上萬象的,剪除那些敬拜永恆主,指著永恆主來起誓、又指著 米勒公 (傳統︰ 瑪勒堪 ﹝他們的 、亞捫人的神的名﹞)來起誓的,
(新譯本) 就是那些在房頂上敬拜天上萬象的,那些敬拜耶和華,指著他起誓,又指著 瑪勒公 起誓的,
Zephaniah 1:5
(NIV) those who bow down on the roofs to worship the starry host, those who bow down and swear by the LORD and who also swear by Molech,
(KJV) And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;
(NASB) “And those who bow down on the housetops to the host of heaven, And those who bow down and swear to the LORD and yet swear by Milcom,
(ESV) those who bow down on the roofs to the host of the heavens, those who bow down and swear to the Lord and yet swear by Milcom,

2. 除 NIV 用 Molech外, 而其它版本是用米勒公及 Milcom。

列王記上 11:33
(和合本) 因為他離棄我、敬拜西頓人的女神亞斯他錄、摩押的神基抹、和亞捫人的神 米勒公、沒有遵從我的道、行我眼中看為正的事、守我的律例典章、像他父親大衛一樣。
(和修版) 因為他們離棄我,敬拜西頓人的女神亞斯她錄、摩押的神明基抹和亞捫人的神明 米勒公,沒有像他父親大衛一樣遵從我的道,行我眼中看為正的事,守我的律例典章。
(呂振中) 因為他離棄了我,去敬拜西頓人的女神亞斯他錄、摩押的神基抹、和亞捫人的神 米勒公,沒有走我的路,而行我所看為對的事,沒有像他父親大衛一樣守我的律例和典章。
(新譯本) 因為他們離棄了我,去敬拜西頓人的女神亞斯他錄、摩押人的神基抹和亞捫人的神 米勒公,沒有遵行我的道,行我眼中看為正的事,謹守我的律例典章,像他的父親大衛一樣。
1 kings 11:33
(NIV) I will do this because they have forsaken me and worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Molech the god of the Ammonites, and have not walked in my ways, nor done what is right in my eyes, nor kept my statutes and laws as David, Solomon’s father, did.
(KJV) Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, to do that which is right in mine eyes, and to keep my statutes and my judgments, as did David his father.
(NASB) because they have forsaken Me, and have worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of Moab, and Milcom the god of the sons of Ammon; and they have not walked in My ways, doing what is right in My sight and observing My statutes and My ordinances, as his father David did.
(ESV) because they have forsaken me and worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of Moab, and Milcom the god of the Ammonites, and they have not walked in my ways, doing what is right in my sight and keeping my statutes and my rules, as David his father did.

列王記下 23:13
(和合本) 從前以色列王所羅門在耶路撒冷前、邪僻山右邊、為西頓人可憎的神亞斯他錄、摩押人可憎的神基抹、亞捫人可憎的神 米勒公、所築的邱壇、王都污穢了。
(和修版) 從前以色列王所羅門在耶路撒冷東邊、邪僻山南邊為西頓人可憎的亞斯她錄、摩押人可憎的基抹、亞捫人可憎的 米勒公 所築的丘壇,王都玷污了,
(呂振中) 從前以色列王所羅門在耶路撒冷東面毀滅山(有古卷︰橄欖山)南邊、為西頓人可憎的神亞斯他錄、摩押人可憎的神基抹、亞捫人可厭惡的神 米勒公、所建筑的邱壇、王都使那些邱壇成了凡俗。
(新譯本) 在耶路撒冷東面、橄欖山南面的邱壇,就是以色列王所羅門為西頓人可憎的神亞斯他錄、摩押人可憎的神基抹,和亞捫人可憎的神 米勒公 所築的邱壇,王都污穢了。
2 kings 23:13
(NIV) The king also desecrated the high places that were east of Jerusalem on the south of the Hill of Corruption–the ones Solomon king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the vile goddess of the Sidonians, for Chemosh the vile god of Moab, and for Molech the detestable god of the people of Ammon.
(KJV) And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon, did the king defile.
(NASB) The high places which were before Jerusalem, which were on the right of the mount of destruction which Solomon the king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, and for Milcom the abomination of the sons of Ammon, the king defiled.
(ESV) After that, he closed down the shrines that Solomon had built east of Jerusalem and south of Spoil Hill to honor Astarte the disgusting goddess of Sidon, Chemosh the disgusting god of Moab, and Milcom the disgusting god of Ammon.

3. 合本修訂版用米勒公,其他所有版本用王。

撒母耳記下 12:30
(和合本)奪了亞捫人之 所戴的金冠冕.〔或作 瑪勒堪瑪勒堪 米勒公 又名摩洛亞捫族之神名〕其上的金子、重一他連得、又嵌著寶石.人將這冠冕戴在大衛頭上。大衛從城裡奪了許多財物。
(和修版) 他也奪了 米勒公 頭上所戴的冠冕,其上的金子重一他連得,又嵌著寶石。這冠冕就戴在大衛頭上。大衛又從城裏奪了許多財物,
(呂振中)大衛從 米勒公 神頭上奪取了 米勒公 (傳統︰他們的 )的冠冕,上頭的金子重有一擔,又有一塊寶石﹔﹝這寶石、是在大衛頭上的那一塊﹞﹔大衛把那城被掠之物搬出來、非常之多。
(新譯本) 大衛從他們的 的頭上奪取了王冠。王冠的金子重三十五公斤,上面嵌有寶石,人把這冠冕戴在大衛的頭上。大衛又從這城裡帶走了許多戰利品,
2 Samuel 12:30
(NIV) He took the crown from the head of their king –its weight was a talent of gold, and it was set with precious stones–and it was placed on David’s head. He took a great quantity of plunder from the city
(KJV) And he took their king’s crown from off his head, the weight whereof was a talent of gold with the precious stones: and it was set on David’s head. And he brought forth the spoil of the city in great abundance.
(NASB) Then he took the crown of their king from his head; and its weight was a talent of gold, and in it was a precious stone; and it was placed on David’s head. And he brought out the spoil of the city in great amounts.
(ESV) And he took the crown of their
king from his head. The weight of it was a talent of gold, and in it was a precious stone, and it was placed on David’s head. And he brought out the spoil of the city, a very great amount.

4. 和合本修訂版及 NIV 用摩洛,其他則用王。

歷代志上 20:2
(和合本) 大衛奪了亞捫人之 所戴的金冠冕、〔或作 瑪勒堪瑪勒堪 米勒公 亞捫族之神名〕其上的金子重一他連得、又嵌著寶石.人將這冠冕戴在大衛頭上.大衛從城裡奪了許多財物.
(和修版) 大衛奪了 米勒公 所戴的冠冕,其上的金子重一他連得,又嵌著寶石。這冠冕就戴在大衛頭上。大衛又從城裏奪了許多財物,
(呂振中) 大衛從 米勒公 神頭上奪取了 米勒公 (傳統︰他們的 )的冠冕﹔他發現了上頭的金子重有一擔﹔又有一塊寶石﹔﹝這寶石是在大衛頭上的那塊﹞﹔大衛把那城被掠之物搬了出來,多極了。
(新譯本) 大衛從 米勒公 神像的頭上取下金冠,發現金子淨重三十公斤,又有一塊寶石嵌在上面;有人把這冠冕戴在大衛的頭上;大衛從城裡奪走了大批戰利品。
1 Chronicles 20:2
(NIV) David took the crown from the head of their king –its weight was found to be a talent of gold, and it was set with precious stones–and it was placed on David’s head. He took a great quantity of plunder from the city
(KJV) And David took the crown of their king from off his head, and found it to weigh a talent of gold, and there were precious stones in it; and it was set upon David’s head: and he brought also exceeding much spoil out of the city.
(NASB) David took the crown of their king from his head, and he found it to weigh a talent of gold, and there was a precious stone in it; and it was placed on David’s head. And he brought out the spoil of the city, a very great amount.
(ESV) Later, David himself went to Rabbah, where he took the crown from the statue of their god Milcom. The crown was made of seventy-five pounds of gold, and there was a valuable jewel on it. David put the jewel on his crown, then carried off everything else of value.

5. 和合本及KJV 用摩洛,其它則用王。

以賽亞書 57:9
(和合本) 你把油帶到 那裡、又多加香料、打發使者往遠方去、自卑自賤直到陰間。
(和修版) 你帶了油到 摩洛那裏,加上許多香水。你派遣使者往遠方去,甚至降到陰間,
(呂振中) 你帶著膏油走到 摩洛(傳統︰)那里,又加多了你的香料,差遣你的使節到遠方去,甚至深入到陰間!
(新譯本) 你帶著油走到君 那裡,並且加多了你的香料,差派使者到遠方去,你甚至自己下到陰間去!
Isaiah 57:9
(NIV) You went to Molech with olive oil and increased your perfumes. You sent your ambassadors far away; you descended to the grave itself!
(KJV) And thou wentest to the king with ointment, and didst increase thy perfumes, and didst send thy messengers far off, and didst debase thyself even unto hell.
(NASB) “You have journeyed to the king with oil And increased your perfumes; You have sent your envoys a great distance And made them go down to Sheol.
(ESV) You journeyed to the king with oil and multiplied your perfumes; you sent your envoys far off,and sent down even to Sheol.

6. 和合本及 KJV 用摩洛,其它的用王。

阿摩司書 5:26
(和合本) 你們抬著為自己所造之 摩洛 的帳幕和偶像的龕、並你們的神星。
(和修版)你們抬著你們的撒古特君,和你們為自己所造之偶像迦溫─你們的神明之星。
(呂振中) 你們抬著為你們的 『索古特』、你們的星神『克完』、(經文甚殘缺,意難確定)你們的神像,就是你們為自己所造的﹔
(新譯本) 你們抬著你們的神“撒固” ,和你們的星神“迦溫”的神像,就是你們為自己所做的。
(NIV) You have lifted up the shrine of your king, the pedestal of your idols, the star of your god — which you made for yourselves.
(KJV) But ye have borne the tabernacle of your
Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves.
(NASB) You also carried along Sikkuth your king and Kiyyun, your images, the star of your gods which you made for yourselves.
(ESV) You shall take up Sikkuth your king, and Kiyyun your star-god—your images that you made for yourselves,

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